SolubilityKineticsAtomic InteractionsGases
Equil.AcidsPhotoelectric effectEmission Spectra


The work investigating bonding and intermolecular forces is built upon the Atomic Interactions simulation develop by PhET Interactive Simulations.

Learning Objectives

Students should be able to:

  1. Explain how subatomic particles lead to attractions between two atoms
  2. Use potential energy to explain the energy changes associated with the breaking and forming of covalent bonds and intermolecular forces
  3. Explain how both strength of interaction and distance between interacting atoms are represented on potential energy well diagrams

Instructional Materials

Further information about this simulation/assignment

In depth discussion of this work has been submitted to the Journal of Chemical Education.

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